Two dimensional extensible array configuration for EMCCD- based solid state x-ray detectors

Two dimensional extensible array configuration for EMCCD- based solid state x-ray detectors


Sharma, P., Swetadri Vasan, S. N., Cartwright, A. N., Titus, A. H., Bednarek, D. R., & Rudin, S. (2012). Two dimensional extensible array configuration for EMCCD-based solid state x-ray detectors. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8313


  • micro angiography
  • x-ray detectors
  • EMCCDs
  • detector arrays
  • fluoroscopy


A high resolution dynamic x-ray detector has been designed and developed to be used for fluoroscopic and angiographic medical imaging.


This article, published in the Proceedings of SPIE in 2012, details the design of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity, solid-state x-ray detector array based on electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) for medical imaging applications like fluoroscopy and angiography.

Key Features and Components:

  • High-Resolution Imaging: The detector utilizes a 1024 x 1024 pixel EMCCD, offering superior resolution compared to traditional x-ray image intensifiers (XII) and flat panel detectors (FPD).
  • Large Field of View (FOV): The design allows for arranging multiple EMCCD modules in a scalable array (example: 3x3 array demonstrated) to achieve a wider field of view.
  • Region of Interest (ROI) Imaging: The modular design enables selective activation of specific detector modules for high-resolution imaging of particular areas of interest.
  • Optical Front-End: This part includes a cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator to convert x-rays into light photons and a fiber optic taper (FOT) to channel and magnify the light onto the EMCCD.
  • Electronic Front-End: This section comprises an FPGA board for clock generation and data acquisition, driver boards for the EMCCDs, a power board, and headboards to hold and connect the EMCCD modules.


  • Enhanced Image Quality: The EMCCD technology provides high sensitivity and low readout noise, resulting in clearer images, especially crucial for minimally invasive procedures.
  • Flexibility and Scalability: The design enables creating arrays of various sizes (X x Y) by adding or removing modules, offering flexibility for different imaging needs.
  • Independent Module Adjustment: Each EMCCD module can be independently aligned in three dimensions (X, Y, Z) for optimal performance and image quality.

The article focuses on the technical design and configuration of the detector array, emphasizing its potential for improved medical imaging. It highlights the system's components, functionality, and advantages in detail.

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